The Nyero Rock paintings date to well before 1250 AD, located 8 km west of Kumi town on the Ngora Road in Eastern Uganda. The Nyero Rock paintings comprise a three-tiered rock-shelter with primitive paintings on their inner surfaces. Archaeologically, the site dates back to the Later Iron Age.
The makers of the Nyero Rock paintings cannot be identified, but the ingenuity with which they were painted demonstrates a high degree of appreciation of their aesthetic values.
Archaeologically, the Nyero rock art sites are rich in paintings, stone tools, iron works, and pottery; the last two attributes being good indicators of settled agricultural lifestyle. Radiocarbon dates, so far, indicate that people lived in this area between 1,000 and 5,000 years ago which also correlates with the hunter-gathering and early Iron Age. It is likely that Twa hunter-gatherer communities once lived in the area of these rock art sites, probably moving on due to the arrival of the present inhabitants (Nilotics, Luo, and Bantu groups).
According to Iteso oral legend, when the Iteso (Nilo-Hamitic people who originally migrated from the Sudans) moved to this area, they found hunter-gatherer people living there who appeared to ﬁt the description of the Twa. It is likely that some of the Twa probably did opt to stay/live with the Iteso and would soon have learned their language. Similarly the Iteso probably took on some of the rituals and traditions of the Twa.